Entries by Viro Research

Increase in Herpes Zoster Over the Last 60 Years

INTRODUCTION: Over the last six decades, there has been a steady increase in the number of herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) cases in the United States, including among younger adults. A 2013 study (Hales et al1) found that rates of shingles have been climbing since the mid-1940s in all age groups. From 1945 to 1949, 0.76 […]


Reactivation of Live Attenuated Varicella Vaccine Virus in Children

INTRODUCTION: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox, an acute viral, vesicular, exanthematous illness. After primary infection, VZV often becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, without production of viral proteins or infectious particles. In recent years, there have been numerous reports of children vaccinated with the live attenuated vaccine virus strain VZV vOka coming down with herpes zoster […]

Herpes Zoster (Shingles) May Be a Marker for COVID-19 Infection

INTRODUCTION: Shingles, or herpes zoster (HZ), is an acute, viral infection that occurs after the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus usually remains dormant within dorsal root ganglia after the virus’s primary infection presentation in the form of varicella. HZ is thought to appear when the immune system is under stress due to […]

The Promise of Adjuvanted Subunit Vaccines as a Viable Option in Vaccine Development-Part II

INTRODUCTION: In this follow-up report, we discuss several adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines in development. In general, subunit vaccines exhibit low immunogenicity and require assistance from an adjuvant to enhance a robust vaccine-induced immune response. The S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 is the preferred viral protein to induce neutralizing antibodies due to its known immunogenic properties. The […]

The Promise of Adjuvanted Subunit Vaccines as a Viable Option in Vaccine Development-Part I

INTRODUCTION: Over the last several decades, subunit vaccines have shown consideration for vaccines. About 30 years ago, scientists developed a potential subunit vaccine for the varicella-zoster virus (VZV).1 A subunit vaccine’s advantage is several-fold, including not needing to grow and inactivate live viruses (or create an attenuated virus strain) and use the most antigenic portion […]

Risk of Herpes Zoster in Children with Cancer

INTRODUCTION Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) within the cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia after primary infection. There is a lifetime risk, ~10% to 30%, of HZ in adults, but is rare in healthy children. Immunocompromised individuals have an increased risk of other diseases, including HZ. Risk of […]